Union Membership in 1994
	FROM Bureau of Labor Statistics:

The tables are available at

      URL: gopher://ftp.SHSU.edu:70/00/Economics/bls/news.release/
                                        History/union2.020995.news

Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected
 characteristics
Table 2. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and
 industry
Table 3. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union
 affiliation and selected characteristics
Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union
 affiliation, occupation, and industry

Technical information:                         USDL 95-40
  Charlie Muhl          (202) 606-6285         For release:  Immediate

Media contact:                606-5902         Wednesday, February 8, 1995


                           UNION MEMBERS IN 1994

     About 16.7 million wage and salary employees, 15.5 percent of total
employment, were union members in 1994, the U.S. Department of Labor's
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  There were 9.6 million members
in private industry, where they accounted for 10.9 percent of employment,
and 7.1 million in government (federal, state, and local), where they
constituted 38.7 percent of employment.

     Data in this release are from the 1994 Current Population Survey (CPS)
and are not directly comparable with those for prior years because a number
of changes were introduced into the CPS beginning with data for January
1994.  (See technical note.)

Membership by industry and occupation

     Among private industry groups, manufacturing had the largest number of
union members --3.5 million, including 2.2 million members employed in the
manufacture of durable goods.  (See tables 1 and 2.)  Manufacturing
membership was followed by transportation and public utilities (1.8
million), services (1.7 million), wholesale and retail trade (1.4 million),
and construction (900,000).  The remaining private industry groups each had
fewer than 160,000 union members.

     Of the major groups with membership proportions above the private
industry average of 10.9 percent, transportation and public utilities had
the highest proportion of union members at 28 percent, followed by
construction (19 percent), manufacturing (18 percent), and mining (16
percent).  The remaining private industry groups had unionization rates
ranging from 2 to 7 percent.  Despite their relatively low unionization
rates, trade and services combined employed about 3 out of every 10 union
members in private industry.

     Among the major occupational groups, the highest proportion of union
membership, nearly 1 in 4 employees, was found in both the operators,
fabricators, and laborers group (including machine and vehicle operators,
assemblers, cleaners, and helpers) and the precision production, craft, and
repair workers group (including mechanics, electricians, and similar
skilled trades workers).  In contrast, union membership proportions were
about 1 in 16 in the farming, forestry, and fishing occupations and 1 in 10
in the technical, sales, and administrative support workers group.

     The managerial and professional specialty group and the operators,
fabricators, and laborers group each had the highest number of members (4.1
million).

Membership by demographic characteristics

     Union membership was proportionally higher among men (18 percent) than
women (13 percent) and higher among blacks (21 percent) than either whites
(15 percent) or Hispanics (14 percent).  Within these major groups, black
men had the highest union membership proportion (23 percent), while white
women and Hispanic women each had the lowest (12 percent).

     Workers aged 35 to 64 had a unionization rate just above 20 percent,
higher than the rates for younger or older workers.  Among age groups, the
largest number of union members, 5.4 million, were 35 to 44 years old.

     Seventeen percent of full-time workers were union members, compared
with 8 percent of part-time workers.

Union representation

     In addition to the 16.7 million wage and salary employees who were
union members in 1994, 2.1 million workers were represented at their
workplace by a union, though not union members themselves.  The total
number of employees who were not union members, but were represented by a
union, was split about evenly between private industry and government.

Earnings

Union members who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual
earnings of $592 per week in 1994, compared with a median of $432 for such
workers not in unions.  (See tables 3 and 4.)  These averages reflect a
variety of influences, including coverage by a collective bargaining
agreement and variations in the distribution of union and nonunion members
by occupation, industry, firm size, or geographic region.  (For a
discussion of the problem of differentiating between the influence of
unionization status and the influence of other worker characteristics on
employee earnings, see "Measuring union-nonunion earnings differences,"
Monthly Labor Review, June 1990, pp. 26-38.)
Technical Note


     The union membership and earnings estimates presented in this release
are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the
Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  The CPS provides
estimates of the number of wage and salary employees who are union members
and those who are represented by a union at their work place, regardless of
whether they are union members.  Union members include employees belonging
to traditional labor unions or to employee associations similar to labor
unions.  The membership estimates exclude workers who are self-employed,
retired, or unemployed.

     Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with those for prior years
because a number of changes were introduced into the CPS with data from
January 1994.  These changes included the introduction of population
controls based on the 1990 census counts (adjusted for the population
undercount) and the redesign of the survey questionnaire and collection
methodology.  For a detailed description of the changes incorporated into
the CPS, see the article, "Revisions in the Current Population Survey
Effective January 1994," in the February 1994 issue of Employment and
Earnings.

Reliability [This section also found at
          URL: gopher://ftp.SHSU.edu:70/00/Economics/bls/news.release/History/
                                                     union2.020995.news

Definitions
     The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly
below.

     Wage and salary employees.  Employees in both the private and public
sectors who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or
piece rates.  For the purposes of the earnings series, excludes self-
employed persons whose businesses are incorporated.
     Full-time workers.  Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week
at their sole or principal job.
     Part-time workers.  Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per
week at their sole or principal job.
     Hispanic origin.  Refers to persons who are of Mexican, Puerto Rican,
Cuban, Central or South American, or of other Hispanic origin or descent.
Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race; hence, they are included in
the numbers for the white and black populations.

Additional statistics and other information
     Historical data on union membership in the United States are available
from the Division of Developments in Labor/Management Relations, telephone
(202) 606-6285 or fax (202) 606-6647.  BLS also issues a quarterly news
release on  wage and compensation cost changes under private industry
settlements, a semiannual news release on wage and compensation cost
changes in state and local government settlements, and annual press
releases on bargaining activity and major work stoppages.
     Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-606-7828, TDD phone:  202-606-
5897, TDD message referral phone number:  1-800-326-2577.

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