MBA Program:  International Human Resource Management


Professor Peter J. Dowling
The Business School
University of Tasmania
PO Box 1214
Launceston Tas. 7250

Telephone (003) 243.569
Fax (003) 264.993

Course Objective

This course provides an overview of the comparative and human
resource management issues associated with operating an
international business organization.


The set texts for the course are:

Dowling, P.J., Schuler, R.S. & Welch, D. (1994) International
Dimensions of Human Resource Management. Second edition. Belmont,
California: Wadsworth.

Mendenhall, M. & Oddou, G. (1991).  Readings and Cases in
International Human Resource Management.  Boston: PWS-Kent.

Recommended Reading


Adler, N.J. (1991).  International Dimensions of Organizational
Behavior. (2nd edn.) Boston: Kent Publishing.

Brooke, M. (1986).  International Management:  A Review of
Strategies and Operations.  London: Hutchinson.

Evans, P., Doz, Y. & Laurent, A. (Eds.) (1989) Human Resource
Management in International Firms, London: Macmillan.
Hickson, D.J. (Ed.) (1993) Management in Western Europe: Society,
Culture and Organization in Twelve Nations, Berlin: de Gruyter. 
Hofstede, G. (1980)  Culture's Consequences. Beverly Hills CA:
Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G. (1992) Culture and Organizations: Software of the
MInd, London: McGraw-Hill. 

Macharzina, K. & Staehle, W.H. (Eds.) (1986).  European
Approaches to International Management.  Berlin: Walter de

Nath, R. (Ed.) (1988).  Comparative Management:  A Regional View. 
Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. 

Phatak A. (1989) International Dimensions of Management, (3rd
edn.) Boston: PWS-Kent.

Ronen, S. (1986). Comparative and Multinational Management.  New
York: Wiley.

Terpstra, V. (1985).  The Cultural Environment of International
Business. (2nd edn.) Cincinnati, OH: South-Western. 


Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 

Columbia Journal of World Business

International Journal of Human Resource Management

International Management

International Studies of Management & Organization

Journal of International Business Studies

Management International Review


A.  Group Assignment

Choose one of the following topics:

1.  Provide a detailed analysis of the management processes in a
particular country.  Your analysis should cover topics such as
relevant aspects of the cultural milieu, sociopolitical and legal
systems;  how business and public sector organizations are
structured;  general industrial relations and HRM practices; and
national management style.

2.  Topic of own choice.  [Details to be negotiated with the

Length:  Up to 25 typed (double spaced) A4 pages (about 4,000

Due date:  To be announced

Grade value: 60%

Group size:  3-5

Group process:  All group members must sign the submitted
assignment to indicate agreement with the contents and to a
common grade for each member of the group.  If problems arise
which cannot be resolved within the group, please contact the
Guidelines for written work:

1.  Complete sentences should always be used, even if a point
form summary is being outlined.  Spelling, grammar and other
elements of expression will be considered in the assessment.  A
"chatty" or "journalistic" style should be avoided.  The first
person (I, we) should be avoided in favour of an impersonal style
(the evidence suggests that ...).  Side headings should be used
appropriately to highlight subject matter.

2.  Appendices should be referred to, and numbered and sequenced
in the same order. Pages should be numbered and the entire report
securely stapled or bound.  Duplicates of all material submitted
should be made and retained by each group.

3.  A reference list (alphabetical listing by author/first
author) must be attached to your report. References in the report
should be cited by author and date of publication, e.g. (Smith,

4. A good English usage book is recommended for points of
grammar. A good example is the Longman Guide to English Usage by
S. Greenbaum & J. Whitcut (Longman, UK; 1988).

B.  Group Presentation

Date:  To be announced

Grade value:  10%

Guidelines for group presentation:  Please ensure that your
presentation will fit the time available.  It is recommended that
the presentation be well prepared before the class.  There will
not be sufficient time to present all material covered in the
group assignment and students should therefore not attempt to
simply read out their report to the class.  Rather, you should
focus on the key issues and highlight the main points that you
wish to make.  It is up to the group to decide how many speakers
will be used in the presentation.  You may wish to enhance your
presentation through the use of materials such as overhead
transparencies, printed handouts, slides or videos.  Any special
equipment requirements should be organized with the lecturer
ahead of the class.

C: Case Study Examination  (1.5 hours)

Date:  To be advised.

Grade value: 30%

All sources of information and ideas must be acknowledged in
written reports.

Reference Citations in Reports

1.   One Work by a Single Author
The surname of the author and the year of publication are
inserted in the report, e.g.:

Porter (1986) considered patterns of international competition

In a study of international competition (Porter, 1986), it was
found that ...

2.   One Work by Two or More Authors
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the
reference appears in the report.

When a work has more than two authors, cite all authors the first
time the reference occurs in the report; in subsequent citations
include only the surname of the first author followed by `et al.'
and the year, e.g.:

Mendenhall, Dunbar and Oddou (1987) found ... [First citation]

Mendenhall et al. (1987) also found that ... [Subsequent

3.   Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses
Order the citations of two or more works within the same
parentheses in alphabetical order, e.g.:

Several researchers have considered issues related to expatriate
management (Adler, 1991; Dowling, Schuler & Welch, 1994; Laurent,

Always give page numbers for quotations, e.g.:

 "Todays' operating environment in many worldwide businesses
demands more than efficient central management and flexible local
operations ..." (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1988, p.56).

5.   Secondary Sources
Material originating from one author, which you read about in
another's work, should be acknowledged in the following way:

Morgan (1986, cited in Dowling, Schuler & Welch, 1994) presented
a model of international human resource management.

Only the work actually read [in the example above, Dowling,
Schuler & Welch (1994)] is included in the reference list at the
end of the report.

Reference List

The reference list at the end of a report documents the reference
works read and provides the necessary information to identify and
retrieve each work.  Authors must include only the works that
were used in the preparation of the report and cited in the
report.  (Note that this is not the same as a bibliography, which
cites works for the background or for further reading). 
References cited in the report must appear in the reference list;
conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in the
report.  The reference list should be placed on a separate page
at the end of the report. References appear in the reference list
in alphabetical order, by the first author's surname.  Each entry
in the reference list should contain the following elements:
author, year of publication, title, and publishing information. 
Some examples are shown below. 


Adler, N.J. (1991) International Dimensions of Organizational
Behaviour. (2nd edn). Boston: PWS-Kent. 

Dowling, P.J. (1988) International human resource management.  In
L.D. Dyer (Ed.) Human resource management: Evolving roles and
responsibilities. Washington, D.C.: American Society for
Personnel Administration/BNA Books.

Gates, S.R. & Egelhoff, G. (1986) Centralization in
headquarters-subsidiary relationships, Journal of International
Business Studies, 17 (2): 71-92.

Mendenhall, M.E., Dunbar, E. & Oddou, G.R. (1987) Expatriate
selection, training and career-pathing: A review and critique,
Human Resource Management, 26 (3): 331-345. 

Class Schedule

[Each class is 3 hours]

Session 1

íIntroduction to International Human Resource Management

íMethodological Issues

íThe Role of Culture in International HRM

Session 2 

íCross-Cultural Issues in International HRM

íInternational Negotiations

íCase Study: Road to Hell (Mendenhall & Oddou, p.385)


 Dowling, Schuler & Welch, Ch 1, Appendix

 Mendenhall & Oddou, Reading 2.1 (Schneider, p. 13)

Adler, N.J. & Bartholomew, S. (1992) Academic and professional
communities of discourse: Generating knowledge on transnational
human resource management, Journal of International Business
Studies, 23 (3): 551-569.

Dowling, P.J. & Nagel, T.W. (1986) Nationality and work
attitudes:  A study of Australian and American business majors. 
Journal of Management, 12, 121-128.

Hofstede, G. (1980) Motivation, leadership and organization:  Do
American theories apply abroad?  Organizational Dynamics, 9,

Commentary:  Do American theories apply abroad?  (1981)
Organizational Dynamics, 10, 49-68.

Jenner, S.R. (1982) Analyzing cultural stereotypes in
multinational business: United States and Australia, Journal of
Management Studies, 19 (3): 307-325.

Nasif, E.G., Al-Daeaj, H., Ebrahimi, B. & Thibodeaux, M.S. (1991)
Methodological problems in cross-cultural research: An updated
review, Management International Review, 31 (1): 79-91.

Tung, R.L. & Miller, E.L. (1990) Managing in the twenty-first
century: The need for global orientation, Management
International Review, 30 (1): 5-18.
Session 3

íStrategic Issues in International Management

íMNE - Host Relations


 Dowling et al., Ch 2

 Mendenhall & Oddou, Reading 3.1 (Miller et al, p. 65)

Bartness, A & Cerny, K. (1993) Building competitive advantage
through a global network of capabilities, California Management
Review 35 (2): 78-103

Boyacigiller, N. (1990) The role of expatriates in the management
of interdependence, complexity and risk in multinational
corporations, Journal of International Business Studies, 21 (3):

Porter (1986) Changing patterns of international competition,
California Management Review, 28, 9-40.

Prahalad, C.K. & Hamel, G. (1990) The core competence of the
corporation, Harvard Business Review, May-June, 79-91.

Ring, P.S., Lenway, A.S. & Govekar, M. (1990) Management of the
political imperative in international business, Strategic
Management Journal, 11: 141-151.

Sundaram, A.K. & Black, J.S. (1992) The environment and internal
organization of multinational enterprises, Academy of Management
Review, 17 (4): 729-757.

Session 4

íOrganizing International Operations

íDecision Making & Control

íComparative Overview: The European Community


Dowling et al., Ch 4

Bartlett, C.A. & Ghoshal, S. (1988) Organizing for worldwide
effectiveness: The transnational solution, California Management
Review, Fall: 54-73.

Bournois, F. & Chauchat, J-H., (1990) Managing managers in
Europe, European Management Journal, 8 (1): 3-18.

Gates, S.R. & Egelhoff, G. (1986) Centralization in
headquarters-subsidiary relationships, Journal of International
Business Studies, 17(2): 71-92.

Hickson, D.J. (Ed.) (1993) Chapter 1 in Management in Western
Europe: Society, Culture and Organization in Twelve Nations,
Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Kobrin, S.J. (1988) Expatriate reduction and strategic control in
American multinational corporations, Human Resource Management,
27 (1): 63-75.

Session 5

íSimilarities and Differences between Domestic and International
Human Resource Management

íComparative Overview: Japan


Dowling et al., Ch 1

Adler, N.J. & Bartholomew, S. (1992) Managing globally competent
people, Academy of Management Executive, 6 (3): 52-65.

De Cieri, H., Dowling, P.J. & Taylor, K.F. (1991) The
psychological impact of expatriate relocation on partners,
International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(3),

Dowling, P.J.  (1986)  Human resource issues in international
business, Syracuse Journal of International  Law and Commerce,
13: 255-271.

Laurent, A. (1986) The cross-cultural puzzle of international
human resource management, Human Resource Management, 25: 91-102.

Thurow, L. (1993) Head to Head.  The Coming Economic Battle      
Among Japan, Europe &America, St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin,
Chapter 4.

Session 6

íInternational Recruitment and Selection

íComparative Overview: Germany


Dowling et al., Ch 3

Mendenhall & Oddou, Reading 4.2 (Boyacigiller, p. 148)

Dowling, P.J. & Welch, D.E. (1988)  International human resource
management:  An Australian perspective.  Asia Pacific Journal of
Management, 6(1):  39-65.

Hickson, D.J. (Ed.) (1993) Chapter 6 in Management in Western
Europe: Society, Culture and Organization in Twelve Nations,
Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Mendenhall, M.E., Dunbar, E. & Oddou, G.R. (1987) Expatriate
selection, training and career-    pathing: A review and
critique, Human Resource Management, 26 (3): 331-345.

Session 7

í International Training & Development

í Comparative Overview: China


Dowling et al., Ch 5

Mendenhall & Oddou, Reading 5.1 (Black & Mendenhall, p. 177) and
Reading 6.3 (Mendenhall & Oddou, p. 259)

Adler, N.J. (1991) International Dimensions of Organizational
Behaviour, Chs 8,9.

Evans, P.A.L. (1992) Management development as glue technology,
Human Resource Planning, 15 (1): 85-106.

Feldman, D.C. & Thomas, D.C. (1992) Career management issues
facing expatriates, Journal of International Business Studies, 23
(2): 271-293.

Naumann, E. (1992) A conceptual model of expatriate turnover,
Journal of International Business Studies, 23 (3): 499-531.

Storey, J., Okazaki-Ward, L., Gow, I., Edwards, P.K. & Sisson, K.
(1991) Managerial careers and management development: A
comparative analysis of Britain and Japan, Human Resource
Management Journal, 1 (3): 33-57.

Wu, Changqi (1990) Enterprise groups in China's industry, Asia
Pacific Journal of  Management 7(2): 123-126.

Session 8

í International Compensation

íComparative Overview: Republic of Korea

í Case Study: Fred Bailey (Mendenhall & Oddou, p.221)


Dowling et al., Ch 6

Mendenhall & Oddou, Readings 8.2 (Oddou & Mendenhall) and 8.3

Townsend, A.M., Scott, K.D. & Markham, S.E. (1990) An examination
of country and culture-based differences in compensation
practices, Journal of International Business Studies, 21 (4):

Session 9

íInternational Labour Relations

í Case Study: Suji-INS K.K. (Mendenhall & Oddou, page 290)


Dowling et al., Ch 7

Adams, R.J. (Ed.) (1991) Comparative Industrial Relations:
Contemporary Research & Theory, London: HarperCollins.

Chapter 5 "The impact of organized labor", in C.K. Prahalad and
Y.L. Doz (1987) The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local
Demands and Global Vision, New York: The Free Press.

Marginson, P. (1992) European integration and transnational
management-union relations in the enterprise, British Journal of
Industrial Relations, 30 (4): 529-545.

Rothman, M., Briscoe, D.R. & Nacamulli, R.C.D. (Eds.) (1993)
Industrial Relations around the World: Labor Relations for
Multinational Companies, Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Session 10

íManagement of International Joint Ventures

íComparative Overview: USA


Dowling et al., Ch 8

Mendenhall & Oddou, Reading 3.2 (Schuler et al, p. 83), 7.1 (Von
Glinow & Teagarden, p. 301)

Bok, D.C. (1971) Reflections on the Distinctive Character of
American Labor Laws, Harvard Law Review, 84, 1394-1463.

Shenkar, O. & Zeira, Y. (1987) Human resources management in
international joint ventures: Directions for research, Academy of
Management Review, 12 (3): 546-557.

Wagner, C.L. (1990) Influences on Sino-Western Joint Venture
Negotiations, Asia Pacific Journal of Management 7(2): 79-100.

Session 11

í Group Presentations

Session 12

íGroup Presentations

Session 13

íCourse overview & conclusion.


Dowling et al., Ch 8

Welch, D. Determinants of IHRM approaches and activities: A
suggested framework. Journal of Management Studies (forthcoming).

Schuler, R.S., Dowling, P.J. & De Cieri, H. (1993) An integrative
framework of strategic international human resource management.
Journal of Management, 19 (2) : 419-459.

MBA Program:   International Human Resource Management

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McMaster University	Fax: 905-527-0100
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