IR 628: COMPARATIVE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

   IR 628: COMPARATIVE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES




Fall 1993                 TuTh 11:00-12:15     6101 Social Sciences
Jonathan Zeitlin               6321 Social Science/5213 Humanities
2-1131/5-2523
                                                                      
                                                                      
                                                                      
Following an introduction to general aspects of the comparative study
of industrial relations, the course will be consist of an in-depth
exploration of four countries: the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and
Japan. Lectures and readings will offer historical and descriptive
detail as well as examine explanations for the wide variation in the
industrial relations systems of advanced industrialized countries.
Particular attention will be paid to the differences between the
countries studied and the United States.

Grading will be based on:

1. two papers (of c. 2,000-2,500 words or 8-10 pages each) describing
the labor relations system of a country included in the course and
comparing it with that of another country, ideally the United States.
The first paper is due at the beginning of week 9, and the second at
the beginning of week 13 of the course.  Each paper will account for
25 percent of the final grade;

2. a final take-home essay exam (50 per cent). Students will have to
answer four out of eight to ten questions; exams will be handed out on
the final day of class (Tu Dec. 15) and will be due at 9am the
following Monday (December 20).

Students are required to read all major readings and are encouraged to
make selective use of the additional readings listed in the syllabus.
Classroom participation may raise a student's grade if the instructor
has the impression that a student's effort and accomplishment are not
adequately reflected in his or her written work.

Copies of all required reading for this course will be deposited in
the Somers Library on the 8th floor of the Social Science Building.
Most of the books included in the reading list will also be held on
reserve at the Helen C. White Library; most of the journals are
available in the Somers Library.  Copies of Anthony Ferner and Richard
Hyman (eds.), Industrial Relations in the New Europe (Basil Blackwell,
1992) will be available for student purchase at the University
Bookstore.  We will read the introduction and chapters 1, 7 & 16 of
the book (pp. xvi-xlix, 1-68, 218-69, 524-600); other chapters may be
used for comparative purposes in the course papers.  The required
readings on the syllabus are listed in order of logical sequence and
priority.
                                           2


                             COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES

      Poole, M., 1986: Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of
         National Diversity, Chs. 1, "Introduction" and 2, "Comparative
         Frameworks", pp. 3-31.

      Schregle, J. 1981: "Comparative Industrial Relations: Pitfalls and
         Potential", International Labour Review 120: 15-30.

      Dunlop, J. T., 1958: Industrial Relations Systems, Carbondale etc.:
         Southern Illinois University Press, Ch.1, "An Industrial Relations
         System", pp. 1-32.

      Maurice, M., F. Sellier and J.J. Silvestre, 1984: "Rules, Contexts and
         Actors: Observations Based on a Comparison Between France and West
         Germany", British Journal of Industrial Relations 22: 346-63.

      Tolliday, S. and J. Zeitlin, 1991: "National Models and International
         Variations in Labor Management and Employer Organization", in: S.
         Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds., The Power to Manage?: Employers and
         Industrial Relations in Comparative-Historical Perspective, London:
         Routledge, pp. 273-343.

      Visser, J. 1992, "The Strength of Labour Movements in Advanced
         Capitalist Democracies: Social and Organizational Variations", in:
         M. Regini, ed., The Future of Labour Movements, London and Newbury
         Park, CA: Sage, pp. 17-52.

      Soskice, D. 1990: "Wage Determination: The Changing Role of
         Institutions in Advanced Industrial Countries", Oxford Review of
         Economic Policy 6, 4: 36-61.

      Ferner, A. and R. Hyman, 1992a: "Industrial Relations in the New
         Europe: Seventeen Types of Ambiguity", in A. Ferner and R. Hyman,
         eds., Industrial Relations in the New Europe, Oxford: Basil
         Blackwell, xvi-xlix.


                               Additional Readings

      Adams, R.J., 1991: Comparative Industrial Relations: Contemporary
         Research & Theory, New York: Harper Collins.

      Bamber, G. J. and R. Lansbury, 1993: "Introduction", in: G. J. Bamber
         and R. Lansbury, eds., International and Comparative Industrial
         Relations: A Study of Developed Economies.

      Bornstein, S., 1984: "States and Unions: From Postwar Settlement to
         Contemporary Stalemate", in: S. Bornstein, D. Held, S. Krieger,
         eds., The State in Capitalist Europe: A Casebook, London: George
         Allen & Unwin, pp. 54-90.

      Clegg, H. A., 1976: Trade Unionism Under Collective Bargaining: A
         Theory Based on Comparisons of Six Countries, Oxford: Basil
         Blackwell, Ch. 1, "The Argument", pp. 1-11.

                                           3


      Kerr, C., J. T. Dunlop, F. Harbison, C. A. Myers, 1960: Industrialism
         and Industrial Man, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

      Marshall, T.H. 1963: "Citizenship and Social Class", in: T.H.
         Marshall, Sociology at the Crossroads, London: Heinemann, pp. 67-
         127.

      Maurice, M., F. Sellier and J.J. Silvestre, 1986: The Social
         Foundations of Industrial Power: A Comparison of France and Germany
         Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

      Shalev, M., 1980: "Industrial Relations Theory and the Comparative
         Study of Industrial Relations and Industrial Conflict", British
         Journal of Industrial Relations 18: 26-43.

      Sisson, K., 1987: The Management of Collective Bargaining: An
         International Comparison, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

      Zeitlin, J., 1985: "Shop Floor Bargaining and the State: A
         Contradictory Relationship", in: S. Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds.,
         Shop Floor Bargaining and the State: Historical and Comparative
         Perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-45.


                                  UNITED KINGDOM

      Edwards, P. et al., 1992: "Great Britain: Still Muddling Through", in:
         Ferner and Hyman, Industrial Relations in the New Europe, pp. 1-68.

      McCarthy, W.E.J., 1992: "The Rise and Fall of Collective Laissez-
         Faire", in W.E.J. McCarthy (ed.), Legislative Intervention in
         Industrial Relations, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. ?

      Flanders, A., 1975: "Industrial Relations: What is Wrong With the
         System?", in his Management and Unions: The Theory and Reform of
         Industrial Relations, London: Faber and Faber, pp. 83-128.

      Tolliday, S. and J. Zeitlin, 1992: "Shop Floor Bargaining, Contract
         Unionism and Job Control: An Anglo-American Comparison", in S.
         Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds., Between Fordism and Flexibility: The
         Automobile Industry and Its Workers, New York: St. Martins, pp. 99-
         120.

      Brown, W. and J. Walsh, 1991: "Pay Determination in Britain in the
         1980s: The Anatomy of Decentralization", Oxford Review of Economic
         Policy 7, 1: 44-59.

      Metcalfe, D., 1993: "Industrial Relations and Economic Performance",
         British Journal of Industrial Relations 31, 2: 255-83.

      Marsden, D. and P. Ryan, 1991: "Initial Training, Labour Market
         Structure and Public Policy: Intermediate Skills in British and
         German Industry", in: P. Ryan, ed.: International Comparisons of
         Vocational Education and Training for Intermediate Skills,
         Brighton: Falmer Press, pp. 251-85.

                                           4


                               Additional Readings

      Armstrong, E. G. A., 1984: "Employers' Associations in Great Britain",
         in: J. P. Windmuller and A. Gladstone, eds., Employers Associations
         and Industrial Relations: A Comparative Study, Oxford: Oxford
         University Press, 44-78.

      Barnes, D. and E. Reid, 1980: Governments and Trade Unions: The
         British Experience Since 1945, London: Heinemann.

      Batstone, E., 1988: The Reform of Workplace Industrial Relations:
         Theory, Myth and Evidence, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

      Beaumont, P.B. 1992: Public Sector Industrial Relations, London and
         New York: Routledge.

      Bornstein, S. and P. Gourevitch, 1984: "Unions in a Declining Economy:
         The Case of the British TUC", in: P. Gourevitch et al., eds.,
         Unions and Economic Crisis: Britain, West Germany, and Sweden,
         London: George Allen & Unwin, 13-88.

      Crouch, C., 1990: "The United Kingdom: The Rejection of Compromise",
         in: G. Baglioni and C. Crouch, eds., European Industrial Relations:
         The Challenge of Flexibility, London and Beverly Hills: Sage, pp.
         326-55.

      Donovan Commission (Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers'
         Associations 1965-1968), 1968: Report Presented to Parliament by
         Command of Her Majesty, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

      Fox, A., 1985: History and Heritage: The Social Origins of the British
         Industrial Relations System, London: George Allen and Unwin, Chs.
         2, esp. "The Eighteenth Century: The System in Embryo", pp. 30-67,
         and 9, "Summing Up and Conclusions", pp. 432-452.

      Kahn-Freund, O., 1978: "Labour Law", in: O. Kahn-Freund, Selected
         Writings, London: Mansell, pp. 1-40.

      Kahn-Freund, O., 1979: Labour Relations: Heritage and Adjustment,
         Oxford: British Academy/Oxford University Press.

      MacInnes, J., 1987: Thatcherism at Work: Industrial Relations and
         Economic Change, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

      McKinlay, A. and D. McNulty, 1991: "Open Secrets and Hidden Agendas:
         Working Time, Flexibility and Industrial Relations in British
         Engineering", in: P. Blyton and J. Morris, eds., A Flexible Future?
         Prospects for Employment and Organization, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp.
         295-309.

      Marsden, D. and M. Thompson, 1990: "Flexibility Agreements and Their
         Significance in the Increase in Productivity in British
         Manufacturing Since 1980", Work, Employment & Society 4: 83-104.

      Marsh, D., 1992: The New Politics of British Trade Unionism: Union
         Power and the Thatcher Legacy, Ithaca: ILR Press.

                                           5


      Metcalf, D., 1989: "Water Notes Dry Up: The Impact of the Donovan
         Reform Proposals and Thatcherism on Labour Productivity in British
         Manufacturing", British Journal of Industrial Relations 27: 1-31.

      Milward, N., et al., 1993: Workplace Industrial Relations in
         Transition, Aldershot: Dartmouth Press.

      Nolan P. and P. Marginson, 1990: "Skating on Thin Ice: David Metcalfe
         on Trade Unions and Productivity" and D. Metcalfe, 1990: "Union
         Presence and Labour Productivity in British Manufacturing Industry:
         A Reply to Nolan and Marginson", British Journal of Industrial
         Relations 28, 2: 226-66.

      Phelps Brown, H., 1983: The Origins of Trade Union Power, Oxford:
         Clarendon Press.

      Phillips, G.A., 1989: "The British Labour Movement to 1914", in: D.
         Geary, ed., Labour and Socialist Movements in Europe to 1914, New
         York: St. Martins, 11-48.

      Pimlott, B. and C. Cook, eds., 1991: Trade Unions in British Politics:
         The First 250 Years, 2nd ed., London: Longmans.

      Purcell, J., 1991: "The Rediscovery of the Management Prerogative: The
         Management of Labour Relations in the 1980s", Oxford Review of
         Economic Policy 7, 1: 33-43.

      Sisson, K., ed., 1990: Personnel Management in Britain, Oxford: Basil
         Blackwell.

      Tarling, R. and F. Wilkinson, 1977: "The Social Contract: Postwar
         Incomes Policies and Their Inflationary Impact", Cambridge Journal
         of Economics 1: 395-414.

      Ullman, L., 1968: "Collective Bargaining and Industrial Efficiency",
         in: R. E. Caves, ed., Britain's Economic Prospects, Washington: The
         Brookings Institution, pp. 324-80.


                                     GERMANY

      Jacobi, O. et al., "Germany: Codetermining the Future", in: Ferner and
         Hyman, Industrial Relations in the New Europe, pp. 218-69.

      Streeck, W., 1993: "Pay Restraint without Incomes Policy:
         Institutionalized Monetarism and Industrial Unionism in Germany",
         unpublished paper.

      Streeck, W., 1984: "Co-Determination: The Fourth Decade". In: B.
         Wilpert and A. Sorge, eds., International Perspectives on
         Organizational Democracy, International Yearbook of Organizational
         Democracy, vol. II, Chichester etc.: John Wiley & Sons; reprinted
         in W. Streeck, Social Institutions and Economic Performance, London
         and Newbury Park, CA, 1992, pp. 136-68.

                                           6


      Sorge, A. and M. Warner, 1980: "Manpower Training, Manufacturing
         Organisation and Workplace Relations in Great Britain and West
         Germany", British Journal of Industrial Relations 18: 318-33.

      Hotz, B., 1982: "Productivity Differences and Industrial Relations
         Structures: Engineering Companies in the United Kingdom and the
         Federal Republic of Germany", Labour and Society 7: 333-54.

      Turner, L., 1992: "Industrial Relations and the Reorganization of Work
         in West Germany: Lessons for the U.S.", in: L. Mishel and P. Voos,
         eds., Unions and Economic Performance, Armonk and London: M. E.
         Sharpe, pp. 217-46.

      Berghahn, V. R., and D. Karsten, 1988: Industrial Relations in West
         Germany, New York: St. Martin's Press, Ch. 5, "German Industrial
         Relations Prior to 1945", pp. 140-91.

      Kern, H. and C.F. Sabel, 1991: "Trade Unions and Decentralized
         Production: A Sketch of Strategic Problems in the West German Labor
         Movement", Politics & Society 19, 4: 373-404.


                               Additional Readings

      Altmann, N., and K. Duell, 1990: "Rationalization and Participation:
         Implementation of New Technologies and Problems of Works Councils
         in the FRG, " Economic and Industrial Democracy 11: 111-27.

      Bunn, R. F., 1984: "Employers' Associations in the Federal Republic of
         Germany", in: J. P. Windmuller and A. Gladstone, eds., Employers
         Associations and Industrial Relations: A Comparative Study, Oxford:
         Oxford University Press, 169-201.

      Clark, J. et al., 1980: Trade Unions, National Politics and Economic
         Management, London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of
         Industrial Society.

      Fletcher, R., ed., 1987: Bernstein to Brandt: A Short History of
         German Social Democracy, London: Edward Arnold.

      Geary, D., 1989: "Socialism and the German Labour Movement Before
         1914", in: D. Geary, ed., Labour and Socialist Movements in Europe
         Before 1914, New York: St. Martins, pp. 101-36.

      Herding, R., 1972: Job Control and Union Structure: A Study on Plant-
         Level Industrial Conflict in the United States with a Comparative
         Perspective on West Germany, Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press,
         esp. Ch. IV, "Job Control and Co-Determination", pp. 319-45.

      Kassalow, E. M., 1989: "Employee Representation on U.S., German
         Boards", Monthly Labor Review (September), pp. 39-42.

      Keller, B., 1989: "Co-Operation and Conflict in Public Sector Labour
         Relations: The Federal Republic of Germany", in: A. Gladstone, ed.,
         Current Issues in Labor Relations: An International Perspective,
         Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 295-305

                                           7


      Kotthoff, H., 1988: "Participation of Works Councils and Trade Unions
         in Staff Reduction Measures in the Federal Republic of Germany, "
         Labour and Society 13: 299-311.

      Maitland, I., 1983: The Causes of Industrial Disorder: A Comparison of
         a British and a German Factory, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

      Markovits, A. S., 1986: The Politics of the West German Trade Unions,
         Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

      Markovits, A. S. and Ch. S. Allen, 1984: "Trade Unions and the
         Economic Crisis: The West German Case", in: P. Gourevitch et al.,
         eds., Unions and Economic Crisis: Britain, West Germany, and
         Sweden, London: George Allen & Unwin, 89-188.

      Miller, D., 1978: "Trade Union Workplace Representation in the Federal
         Republic of Germany: An Analysis of the Postwar Vertrauensleute
         Policy of the German Metalworkers' Union (1952-77)", British
         Journal of Industrial Relations 16: 335-354.

      M!ller-Jentsch, W., 1981: "Strikes and Strike Trends in West Germany,
         1950-78", Industrial Relations Journal 12: 36-57.

      Schregle, J., 1987: "Workers' Participation in the Federal Republic of
         Germany in an International Perspective", International Labour
         Review 126: 317-27.

      Streeck, W., 1981: "Qualitative Demands and the Neo-Corporatist
         Manageability of Industrial Relations: Trade Unions and Industrial
         Relations in West Germany at the Beginning of the Eighties",
         British Journal of Industrial Relations 14: 149-69.

      Streeck, W., 1984: Industrial Relations in West Germany: A Case Study
         of the Car Industry, New York: St. Martin's Press, esp. ch. 8,
         "Some Tentative Conclusions", pp. 137-55; Appendix, pp. 158-169.

      Streeck, W., 1984: "Neo-Corporatist Industrial Relations and the
         Economic Crisis in West Germany", in: J. H. Goldthorpe, ed., Order
         and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism,  Oxford: Clarendon Press,
         291-314.

      Streeck, W., 1991: "More Uncertainties: German Unions Facing 1992",
         Industrial Relations 30, 3: 317-49.

      Streeck, W., 1993: "West Germany", in: M. Rothman et al., eds.,
         Comparative Industrial Relations, Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

      Streeck, W., P. Seglow, P. Wallace, 1981: "Competition and Monopoly in
         Interest Representation: A Comparative Analysis of Trade Union
         Structure in the Railway Industries of Great Britain and West
         Germany", Organization Studies 2: 307-29.

      Thelen, K., 1991: Union of Parts: Labor Politics in Postwar Germany,
         Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

      Weiss, M., 1987: Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the Federal
         Republic of Germany, Deventer: Kluwer.

                                           8


                                      ITALY

      Ferner, A. and R. Hyman, 1993: "Italy: Between Political Exchange and
         Micro-Corporatism", in Ferner and Hyman, Industrial Relations in
         the New Europe, pp. 524-600.

      Negrelli, S. and E. Santi, 1990: "Industrial Relations in Italy", in
         G. Baglioni and C. Crouch, eds., European Industrial Relations: The
         Challenge of Flexibility, London and Beverly Hills: Sage, pp. 154-
         98.

      Contini, G., 1985: "Politics, Law and Shop Floor Bargaining in Postwar
         Italy", in: S. Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds., Shop Floor Bargaining
         and the State: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, Cambridge:
         Cambridge University Press, pp. 192-218.

      Regini, M., 1987: "Social Pacts in Italy", in: I. Scholten, ed.,
         Political Stability and Neo-Corporatism, London and Beverly Hills:
         Sage, pp. 194-215.

      Trigilia, C., 1989: "Small-Firm Development and Political Sub-Cultures
         in Italy", in: E. Goodman et al., eds., Small Firms and Industrial
         Districts in Italy, London: Routledge, pp. 174-97.

      Locke, R.M., 1990: "The Resurgence of the Local Union: Industrial
         Restructuring and Industrial Relations in Italy", Politics &
         Society 18: 347-79.


                               Additional Readings

      Bordogna, L., 1989: "The COBAS: Fragmentation of Trade Union
         Representation and Conflict", in: R. Leonardi and P. Corbetta,
         eds., Italian Politics: A Review, vol. 3, London: Francis Pinter,
         pp. 50-65.

      Cammett, J.M., 1967: Antonio Gramsci and the Origins of Italian
         Communism, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

      Cella, G.P., 1989: "Criteria of Regulation in Italian Industrial
         Relations: A Case of Weak Institutions", in: P. Lange and M.
         Regini, eds., State, Market and Social Regulation: New Perspectives
         on Italy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 167-86.

      Clark, M., 1977: Antonio Gramsci and the Revolution That Failed, New
         Haven: Yale University Press.

      Contini, G., 1986: "The Rise and Fall of Shop-Floor Bargaining at
         Fiat, 1945-80", in: S. Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds., The
         Automobile Industry and Its Workers: Between Fordism and
         Flexibility, New York: St. Martins, pp. 144-67.

      Corner, P., 1990: "Italy", in: S. Salter and J. Stevenson, eds., The
         Working Class and Politics in Europe and America, 1929-45, London:
         Longmans, pp. 154-71.

                                           9


      Davis, J., 1989: "Socialism and the Working Classes in Italy Before
         1914", in: D. Geary, ed., Labour and Socialist Movements in Europe
         Before 1914, New York: St. Martins, pp. 182-230.

      Franzosi, R., 1989: "Strike Data in Search of a Theory: The Italian
         Case in the Postwar Period", Politics & Society 17, 4: 453-87.

      Garonna, P. and E. Pisani, 1986: "Italian Unionism in Transition: The
         Crisis of Political Unionism", in: R.C. Edwards et al., eds.,
         Unions in Crisis and Beyond, Dover, MA: Auburn House, pp. 114-72.

      Golden, M., 1988: Labor Divided: Austerity and Working-Class Politics
         in Contemporary Italy, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

      Jacobi, O. et al., eds., 1986: Economic Crisis, Trade Unions and the
         State, London: Croom Helm, pp. 155-209: Part Three: "Italy: The
         Permanent Impasse".

      Lange, P. and M. Vanicelli, 1982: "Strategy under Stress: The Italian
         Trade Movement and the Italian Crisis in Developmental
         Perspective", in P. Lange et al., Unions, Change and Crisis: French
         and Italian Union Strategy and the Political Economy, London: Allen
         and Unwin, pp. 95-206.

      Lange, P., 1986: "The End of an Era: The Wage Indexation Referendum of
         1985", in: R. Leonardi and R.Y. Nanetti, eds., Italian Politics: A
         Review, vol. 1, London: Francis Pinter, pp. 29-46.

      Locke, R.M. 1992: "Industrial Restructuring and Industrial Relations
         in the Italian Automobile Industry", in: M. Golden and J.
         Pontusson, eds., Bargaining for Change: Union Politics in North
         America and Europe, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 247-76.

      Martinelli, A. and T. Treu, 1984: "Employers' Associations in Italy",
         in: J. Windmuller and A. Gladstone, eds., Employers Associations
         and Industrial Relations, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 264-93.

      Ministero del Lavoro e della Providenza Sociale, 199?: Report '9?:
         Labour and Employment Policies in Italy, Rome: Ministero del
         Lavoro.

      Pyke, F. et al., eds., 1990: Industrial Districts and Inter-Firm Co-
         operation in Italy, Geneva: International Institute for Labour
         Studies.

      Regalia, I., 1986: "Centralization or Decentralization? An Analysis of
         Organizational Changes in the Italian Trade Union Movement", in: O.
         Jacobi et al., eds., Technological Cahnge, Rationalization and
         Industrial Relations, London: Croom Helm, pp. 196-218.

      Regalia, I. et al., 1978: "Labour Conflicts and Industrial Relations
         in Italy", in: C. Crouch and A. Pizzorno, eds., The Resurgence of
         Class Conflict in Western Europe Since 1968, vol. 1, London:
         Macmillan, pp. 101-58.

                                          10


      Reyneri, E., 1989: "The Italian Labor Market: Between State Control
         and Social Regulation", in: P. Lange and M. Regini, eds., State,
         Market and Social Regulation: New Perspectives on Italy, Cambridge:
         Cambridge University Press, pp. 129-46.

      Ricoveri, G. et al., 1991: "Labour and Social Conditions in Italian
         Industrial Districts", Labour and Society 16, 1: 57-86.

      Salvati, B., 1972: "The Rebirth of Italian Trade Unionism", in: S.J.
         Woolf, ed., The Rebirth of Italy, 1943-1950, London: Longmans, pp.
         181-211.

      Salvati, M., 1981: "May 1968 and the Hot Autumn of 1969: The Responses
         of Two Ruling Classes", in: S. Berger, ed., Organizing Interests in
         Western Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 331-66.


                                      JAPAN

      Japan Institute of Labour, 1983: Labor Unions and Labor Management
         Relations, Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

      Japan Institute of Labour, 1991: Labor-Management Relations in Japan,
         Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

      Koike, K., 1987: "Human Resource Development and Labor-Management
         Relations", in: K. Yamamura and Y. Yasukichi, eds., The Political
         Economy of Japan, Volume 1: The Domestic Transformation, Stanford:
         Stanford University Press, pp. 289-330.

      Shirai, T.: 1983: "A Theory of Enterprise Unionism", in: Shirai, T.,
         ed., 1983: Contemporary Industrial Relations in Japan, Madison,
         Wisc.: The University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 117-43.

      Seifert, W., 1988: "Some Thoughts on the Problem of Internal Union
         Democracy in Japan", Economic and Industrial Democracy 9: 373-95.

      Gordon, A., 1985: The Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan: Heavy
         Industry, 1853-1955, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
         esp. "Conclusion", pp. 413-35.

      Shimada, H., 1988: "Japanese Trade Unionism: Postwar Evolution and
         Future Prospects," Labour and Society 13: 203-223.

      Kume, I., 1988: "Changing Relations Among the Government, Labor, and
         Business in Japan After the Oil Crisis", International
         Organization, 42: 659-87.

      Freeman, R. and M.E. Rebick, 1989: "Crumbling Pillar? Declining Union
         Density in Japan", Journal of the Japanese and International
         Economies 3: 578-605.

                                          11


                               Additional Readings

      Cusumano, M., 1985: The Japanese Automobile Industry: Technology and
         Management at Nissan and Toyota, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
         Press, esp. ch. 3: "The Human Drama: Management and Labor", pp.
         137-85.

      Dohse, K. et al., 1986: "From 'Fordism to Toytism? The Social
         Organization of the Labor Process in the Japanese Automobile
         Industry", Politics & Society 16: 121-58.

      Dore, R. P., 1973: British Factory-Japanese Factory: The Origins of
         National Diversity in Industrial Relations, London: George Allen &
         Unwin.

      Friedman, David, 1988: The Misunderstood Miracle: Industrial
         Development and Political Change in Japan, Ithaca: Cornell
         University Press.

      Garon, S., 1988: The State and Labor in Modern Japan, Palo Alto:
         Stanford University Press.

      Gordon, A., 1990: Labor and Imperial Democracy in Prewar Japan,
         Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Gould IV, W., 1984: Japan's Reshaping of American Labor Law,
         Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

      Inagami, T., 1983: Labor-Management Communication at the Workshop
         Level, Tokyo: The Japan Institute of Labour.

      Jacoby, S., 1992: "Pacific Ties: Industrial Relations and Employment
         Systems in Japan and the U.S. Since 1900", in: N. Lichtenstein and
         H. Harris, eds., Industrial Democracy in America: The Ambiguous
         Promise, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 206-48.

      Japan Institute of Labour, 1989: Shunto Wage Offensive: Historical
         Overview and Prospects, Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

      Japan Institute of Labour, 1989: Industrial Relations System in Japan:
         A New Interpretation, Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

      Kamata, S., 1983: Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider's Account of
         Life in a Japanese Factory, London: George Allen & Unwin.

      Kassalow, E., 1983: "Japan as an Industrial Relations Model", The
         Journal of Industrial Relations 25: 201-19.

      Kawanishi, H., 1986, "The Reality of Enterprise Unionism", in: G.
         McCormack and Y. Sugimoto, eds., Democracy in Contemporary Japan,
         Sidney: Hale and Iremonger, 138-156.

      Kenny, M. and R. Florida, "Beyond Mass Production: Production and the
         Labor Process in Japan", Politics & Society 16: 121-58.

      Koike, K., 1988: Understanding Industrial Relations in Modern Japan,
         New York: St. Martin's Press.

                                          12


      Koshiro, K., 1979: "Japan's Labor Unions: The Meeting of White and
         Blue Collar", in: Japan Culture Institute, Politics and Economics
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